Last Updated: 2023-07-07
Author(s): Anzengruber F., Navarini A.
- Yersin, 1894
- Kitasato, 1894
Pestis, pestilentia, black death.
Notifiable infectious disease caused by the aerobic, gram-negative, "safety needle" bacterium.
- Millions of plague deaths occurred in the Middle Ages
- Endemically, it still occurs in Africa, Southeast Asia, India and on Indian reservations in the USA
- Yersinia pestis is ingested by fleas as part of the sucking act and is ultimately transmitted to rodents and humans. The plague manifests itself cutaneously (bubonic plague) in 90%
- Pathogen: Yersinia pestis
- Transmission: flea bites
- Incubation period: 1-6 days
Bubonic plague (bubonic plague):
- 90% of all plague cases
- Reduced general condition, febrile temperatures, myalgias, arthralgias, tachycardia, delirium
- Small papules or papulovesicles appear in the area of the portal of entry, which are usually overlooked
- In the lymphatic drainage area, there is locoregional lymph node adenopathy
- In bacteraemia, there is petechiae, ecchymosis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, sepsis and pulmonary involvement (black death)
Pneumonic plague: dyspnoea, haemoptysis, cyanosis
- Anamnesis (travel anamnesis)
- Detection of pathogens: Bact. smear (sputum, bubones), blood culture
- Serological antibody detection
- Bubonic plague: untreated 50-90% lethality, treated 10-20%.
- Pneumonic plague: untreated 100% lethality, treated 50%.
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