Last Updated: 2020-11-19

Author(s): Anzengruber F., Navarini A.

ICD11: -

Schwimmer 1877.

Oral leukoplakia.

Non-wipeable, white, irritation-unspecific mucosal stain that leads to increased or abnormal keratinization.

  • Peak age: 40-70 years.
  • Men > women.

  • Exogenous-irritative
    • Chronic, physical stimuli
  • Mechanical
    • Dentures
  • Chemical
    • Nicotine abuse 
  • Viruses 
    • Human papilloma viruses, especially type 1, 6 & 16

Mostly solitary, but in some cases also multiple, whitish to greyish areas with smooth to rucous surfaces.

  • Clinical findings 
  • Biopsy 

  • Transition to 
    • Spinocellular carcinoma
    • Floride oral papillomatosis 

Stop smoking, but not prospectively investigated. 

Chronic course.

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  2.  Aquilina C, Viraben R, Denis P. Secondary syphilis simulating oral hairy leukoplakia. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2003;49:749-51. 
  3.  van der Hem PS, Nauta JM, der Wal JEv, Roodenburg JLN. The results of CO2 laser surgery in patients with oral leukoplakia: a 25 year follow up. Oral Oncology 2005;41:31-7. 
  4.  Bagan JV, Jimenez Y, Murillo J, et al. Lack of Association Between Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia and Human Papillomavirus Infection. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2007;65:46-9. 
  5.  Cabay RJ, Morton TH, Epstein JB. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its progression to oral carcinoma: a review of the literature. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 2007;36:255-61. 
  6.  van der Waal I, Reichart PA. Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia revisited. Oral Oncology 2008;44:719-21.