Last Updated: 2023-07-07

Author(s): Anzengruber F., Navarini A.

ICD11: EJ00

  • Crocq 1896

  • Acroasphyxia
  • Acrocyanosis
  • Acroasphyxia

  • Discolouration of the acras (blue-white) due to reduced blood supply (cyanosis).

  • Cyanotic (oxygen-poor) blood remains in the venous capillaries and venules. The arterioles are narrowed. This results in a lack of oxygen. Causes of include:


  • Idiopathic
  • Genetic disposition
  • Vegetative dysregulation of the microcirculation
  • Nerval-related disturbances


  • Association: livedo reticularis.

  • Whitish-bluish skin discolouration. Numbness is described.

  • Anamnesis
  • Clinic

  • Mostly the acras are affected.

  • Freezing
  • Verrucae vulgaris
  • Pernions
  • Fungal infections

  • Often, the symptoms subside in middle age

[1]          Heidrich H. Functional vascular diseases: Raynaud's syndrome, acrocyanosis and erythromelalgia. Vasa. 2010;39; 33-41.

[2]          Kurklinsky AK, Miller VM, Rooke TW. Acrocyanosis: the Flying Dutchman. Vasc Med. 2011;16; 288-301.

[3]          Planchon B, Becker F, Carpentier PH, Lazareth I, Le Devehat C, Levesque H, et al. [Acrocyanosis: changing concepts and nosological limitations]. J Mal Vasc. 2001;26; 5-15.