Last Updated: 2023-03-31
Author(s): Anzengruber F., Navarini A.
Rubella, also known as the 3rd infectious disease.
Contagious viral infection that mainly affects unvaccinated adolescents, typically peaking in spring.
- Spread through respiratory droplets
- Incubation period: 2-3 weeks
- Contagiousness: 6 days before to 8 days after rash onset
- Less contagious than measles
- Virus: 50-100 nm RNA togavirus
- Infection begins in respiratory mucosa and spreads hematogenously
- Often asymptomatic
- Prodromal stage: Reduced general condition, mild to moderate fever, flu-like symptoms, joint pain, and inflammation
- Initial butterfly-shaped rash on the face, spreading to the retroauricular area
- Non-confluent, small-spotted or papular rash on the skin, remission after 3 days
- Swelling of cervical lymph glands, splenomegaly, and joint pain in some cases
- Clinical diagnosis supported by laboratory findings
- Leukopenia, eosinophilia, elevated ESR, and elevated ASL titer (1-2 weeks after onset)
- PCR for direct detection
- Hemagglutination inhibition test (HAM) for specific IgM antibodies 3-7 days after rash outbreak
- Gregg's syndrome or abortion if contracted during pregnancy
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