Last Updated: 2023-07-07
Author(s): Anzengruber F., Navarini A.
- Chapin & Mc Coy 1912.
- Wherry & Lamb 1914.
Rabbit fever, rabbit plague, rodent disease, lemming disease, lemming fever, deer fly fever, Ohara's disease, Francisella tularensis infection, deer fly fever.
Notifiable, plague-like rodent disease caused by the gram-negative, coccoid, rod Francisella tularensis, mucoglandular tularaemia, ulcero-glandular tularaemia, oculoglandular tularaemia, typhoid tularaemia, allergic tularaemia.
- Rare in Europe.
- Mostly occurring in people from the rural population or hunters.
- In particular, <10 or >60-year-olds are affected.
- Francisella tularensis.
- Francisella tularensis enters the human organism through small skin lesions, mosquitoes and ticks or the GI tract.
- Transmission: skin or mucosal contact with infected animals, ingestion or transmission by mosquitoes and ticks or through contaminated water.
- Pathogen reservoirs: hares, beavers, ticks.
- Incubation period: 2-14 days.
- In particular hands.
- In addition to cephalgias, myalgias, arthralgias and febrile temperatures, symptoms occur which are assigned to 6 different forms of manifestation.
- Ulcero-glandular tularemia
- Most common.
- The causative agent enters via skin defects.
- The primary manifestation (this may be absent, but several may occur simultaneously) is in the form of a small nodular, blue-red infiltrate or ulcerated pustule.
- Locoregional lymph node adenopathy, which often persists for 2-3 weeks and then melts and fistulates).
- Mucoglandular tularemia
- Entry of the causative agent via the oral mucosa, where aphthous formation occurs.
- Locoregional lymph node adenopathy
- Oculoglandular tularemia
- occurrence of conjunctivitis and/or eyelid oedema.
- Locoregional lymph node adenopathy, usually preauricular or submandibular.
- Typhoid tularemia
- Reduced general condition.
- Diarrhoea, abdominal pain.
- With concomitant pneumonia also dysnoea.
- Sepsis represents a complication.
- Allergic tularemia
- Polymorphous, maculopapular exanthema or nodular erythema.
- Anamnesis (contact with animals, age, place of residence).
- Detection of pathogens (bact. smear).
- The serum agglutination test is positive from about the 2nd week of illness. A skin test with Francisella tularensis antigen is positive as early as the 1st week of illness.
- Pulmonary abscess
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