Last Updated: 2019-08-27
- Chapin u. Mc Coy 1912.
- Wherry u. Lamb 1914.
Rabbit fever, Ohara's disease, Francisella tularensis-Infection, deer fly fever.
Notifiable, plague-like rodent disease caused by Gram-negative, coccoid, rod Francisella tularensis, mucoglandular tularaemia, ulcero-glandular tularaemia, oculoglandular tularaemia, typhoid tularaemia, allergic tularaemia.
- Rare in Europe.
Especially among rural people or hunters.
- In particular <10 or >60-year-olds are affected.
- Causative organism
- Francisella tularensis.
Francisella tularensis enters the human organism through small skin lesions, mosquitoes and ticks or the GI tract.
Transmission: Skin or mucous membrane contact with infected animals, ingestion or transmission by mosquitoes and ticks or contaminated water.
Pathogen reservoirs: hare, beaver, ticks.
Incubation period: 2-14 days.
- Especially hands..
In addition to cephalgias, myalgia, arthralgia and febrile temperatures, symptoms are assigned to 6 different forms of manifestation.
- Ulzero-glandular tularaemia is the most common.
- The pathogens are caused by skin defects.
The primary effect (which may be absent, but several may occur at the same time) takes the form of a small nodular blue-purple infiltrate or an ulcerated pustle.
- Locoregional lymph node adenopathy, which often lasts for 2-3 weeks and then melts down and fistulises).
- Mucoglandular tularaemia
The pathogens enter through the oral mucosa, where they form aphthae.
Locoregional lymph node adenopathy
- Oculoglandular tularaemia
Occurrence of conjunctivitis and/or eyelid edema.
Local-regional lymph node adenopathy, mostly preauricular or submandibular.
- Typhoid tularaemia
Reduced general condition.
Diarrhea, stomach ache.
With simultaneous pneumonia also dyspnoea.
Sepsis is a complication.
- Allergized tularaemia
Polymorphic, maculopapular exanthema or nodose erythema.
- Medical History (contact to animals, age, place of residence).
Detection of pathogens (bacterial smear).
The serum agglutination test is positive after about the 2nd week of illness. A skin test with Francisella tularensis antigen is already positive in the first week of the disease.
- Lung abscess
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- Hamblin KA, Wong JP, Blanchard JD , Atkins HS. The potential of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin as a tularemia therapy. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2014;4:79.
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- Penn, R. (2016). Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of tularemia. Uptodate.com. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-tularemia?source=search_result&search=tularemia&selectedTitle=1%7E62