Last Updated: 2023-07-07
Author(s): Anzengruber F., Navarini A.
ICD11: 1E 83
Lewandowsky u. Lutz 1922.
Verrucosis generalisata, Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome.
Very rare HPV-induced genodermatosis with polymorphous, pronounced wart infection and increased tendency to malignant degeneration. The triggering HPV types are 5, 8, 9, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21-25, 36, 38, 47, 50. HPV 5 and 8 can be detected in 90% of cases.
The skin lesions mostly develop during childhood and adolescence, but can also be visible at birth. No spontaneous healing.
- In 30% of all cases, a familial increased incidence has been described. Strikingly, the cellular immune defence is often impaired, which may be due to AR inheritance. A mutation of the EVER1 or EVER2 gene (Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Endoplasmatic Reticulum genes) on chromosome 17q25, which code for membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum, is being discussed. Mutations can lead to increased susceptibility to HPV infection.
- In total, a large number of rare HPV genotypes have been detected, some of which, however, also occur in healthy skin. An increased probability for the occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer is shown in skin lesions with HPV 5 and 8.
Solid or confluent papillomas up to the size of a cent. They are divided into 2 manifestations. On the one hand, pityriasis versicolor-like flat, yellow-red or yellow-brown papules. These appear mainly on the face and trunk. On the other hand, efflororescences appear lichenoid, wart-like on the palms. Especially the latter have a higher risk of degeneration. Often, the skin lesions occur in combination with pigment spots.
- PCR with HPV typing essential for diagnosis
All over the integument, but mainly on the face and hands. The palms of the hands and feet can also be affected. The mucous membranes, however, are left out.
Histological findings depend on the location and duration of the disease, but generally resemble verruca plana. However, dyskeratosis and pyknotic nuclei are frequently seen.
- Due to the high incidence of Bowen's disease, Bowen's carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma (up to 60% of all patients, especially between 40-60 years of age), regular dermatological check-ups are indicated. Epithelial dysplasia can occur very early (often from the age of 30). Especially UV-exposed skin areas are affected.
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- Favre M, Orth G, Majewski S, Pura A, Jablonska S, Baloul S. Psoriasis: A Possible Reservoir for Human Papillomavirus Type 5, the Virus Associated with Skin Carcinomas of Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1998;110:311-7.
- Jacobelli S, Laude H, Carlotti A, et al. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patients. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:590.
- Lewandowsky F, Lutz W. Ein Fall einer bisher nicht beschriebenen Hauterkrankung (Epidermodysplasia verruciformis). Arch f Dermat 1922;141:193-203.